When the four great European powers (Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria), which resisted the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars, collapsed in 1814, they began planning for the post-war world. The Treaty of Chaumont of March 1814 confirmed decisions that were to be ratified by the most important Congress of Vienna from 1814 to 1815. The Vienna Congress was the first in a series of international meetings known as Europe`s Concert, an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe. It served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations in 1919 and the United Nations in 1945. These included the creation of a confederal Germany, the division of French protectorates and annexations into independent states, the re-establishment of the Bourbon kings of Spain, the enlargement of the Netherlands to modern Belgium in 1830 and the continuation of British subsidies to their allies. The Treaty of Chaumont unites the powers to defeat Napoleon and became the cornerstone of the concert of Europe, which constituted the balance of power for the next two decades. The basic idea of the balance of European powers is that no European power should acquire hegemony over an essential part of the continent and that the best way to do so is to have a small number of ever-changing alliances fighting for power. Negotiations can be seen as a choice of partners. In general, the negotiation is defined according to its content. What is the position of the conflicting parties and how far are the conflicting parties and, therefore, how difficult will the negotiation process be? However, we can also define negotiations on the basis of stakeholders, in the case of diplomatic negotiations: countries and their representatives, their representatives. From this perspective, it is the counterparties in conflict around the table, such as the distance between their interests, that will determine the course of the process, the options for convergence and closure by an agreement. Leaving a party out of the process could have serious implications for the value and viability of the contract; The party`s accession could hinder the process too much and, therefore, never be able to terminate the negotiation process. But the choice of parties is also a choice of choice of conviction.
Since a party is not in a position to directly influence its counterparts, it will be obliged to do so indirectly, which in most cases is less effective than a direct negotiation process. In implementing the results of the negotiations, it is essential that as many parties as possible support the final agreement. However, the success of the negotiation process, with more than five parties, seems very difficult. Complexity hinders the effectiveness of negotiations; The number of games counts. One could postulate that the larger the number of games, the richer the process, the more choices, the more possibilities, the more inclusive the end result. That is certainly true, but dealing with a very complex multilateral process is often a burden. Especially when, as in the 19th century, rules and regulations were lacking. The Vienna Congress, for example, has never adopted uniform procedures and, without such protection from the negotiation process, it is very difficult to steer the parties in the desired direction. This system of power based on inclusion and exclusivity could therefore only be effective if there was a layer of middle powers that were both involved and excluded.
This implies that they were consulted and excluded regularly because they did not have a „permanent seat“ in the negotiation process. We could call them „involved parties.“ Since the middle class provides stability in the social and economic sense of a society, these countries have ensured the sustainability necessary for the relatively peaceful development of the 19th century.